Tuesday, July 31, 2007


I. Overview

Art has been the oldest form of tracking swimwear throughout history. Several artists created murals and mosaics which included women and men in swimwear/bathing attire near lakes and dedicated bathing locations. To date swimwear can be traced back as far as the 3rd A.D. Featured in several mosaic masterpieces of Piazza America, Sicily are women wearing bikini like swimsuits near a waterhole. Their swimwear attire included bandeau tops with short type bottoms. Artwork annalists have concluded the swimsuits were made from simple cloth and were more likely used as cover-ups while bathing. (Davanzo, 8)

Since the 3rd A.D swimwear has developed into a more modest piece of bathing attire. As spotted later in art history swimwear moved towards tunic flannel gowns, some even mimicking everyday day-wear. Villages living close to lakes and oceans would frequently take bathing trips, were they would bathe, not swim, in the full covering tunics. It wasn’t until the late 19th century that swimming began to become popular. Because of the invention of indoor plumbing people no longer needed to visit the shorelines for hygiene purposes, they were visiting for leisure and sporting activities. (Davanzo, 14-25)

The 20th century revolutionized swimwear. Active and leisure swimwear began to be high in demand. Designers, inventors, and retailers took the responsibility in developing new silhouettes, textiles, and venues for all types of swimming activities. The swimsuit transformed from tunics to modest two piece suits to ultra mini bikinis and only one piece bottoms. With the help of companies like Du Pont and Speedo, swimwear begun to be designed in stretch form fitting textiles, and ultra smooth athletic swimsuits. As swimwear approaches the 21st century, it is considered a multi-billion dollar industry, which caters to swimmers all over the world.

II. Timeline

a. 1400’s –
§ Silhouette
o Rectangular shape starting from bust line
o Low cut bodice with shoulder straps
o Skirted from empire waist
§ Textiles
o Cotton cloth

b. 1700’s –
§ Silhouette
o Rectangular shape tunic
o Semi flared trousers
§ Textiles
o Taffeta, sailor cloth
o White and black dyed textiles in city of Turin
o Multicolored in France (Davanzo 9-10)

c. 1800 –
§ Silhouette
o Early 1880- Long A-line
o Late 1880- Fitted bodice, belted waistline
o Knee length skirt
o Victorian and Edwardian Seaside Fashion in 1800
§ Details
o Ruffling, blown up sleeves
o Lace, trimmings (Mckenzie 6-12)
§ Accessories
o Waterproof caps, rubber belts, laced up slippers
o Marine motif handbags
o Raton woven Beach chairs
§ Textiles
o Flannel,
o Taffeta
§ Designers
o Hortense Allart designs swim/bathing suits in 1829
a. Smooth yet rigid taffeta textiles
b. Smocks flounced at wrists and neck, worn over trousers (Davanzo 14-21)
§ News
a. Annette Kellerman popularizes swimwear
(Mcknenzie, 6-12)

d. 1900 –
§ Silhouette
o Empire waistline
o Low waist introduced
§ Details
o Angled cut’s
o Introduction of knitwear
§ Textiles
o Bright vibrant colors
§ News
o Reginia magazine issues article in 1905 on gymnastics encouraging swimming
a. Changes mentality of swimming
b. Begins a change in swimwear
c. Introduces new activities to swimming
o Erte designs beachwear 1915 (Davanzo, 25)

f. 1920 –
§ Silhouette
o Rectangle shape with low waist
o Mid thigh length
o An array of swimsuit fashion
(Weston, Par 2)
§ Details
o Blouses with short flounces
o Square crew neckline
§ Accessories
o Knotted scarves
o Parasols
§ Textiles
o Organic shapes and nature inspired
o Geometric shapes
o Wool jersey
§ Designers
o Rinascente features two piece swimsuits in 1925
a. Two piece with blouse and shorts
b. Swimsuits made from knitwear, cretonne, shinny silk, alpaca,
c. Textiles colors designed in navy, coral, black, nattier, red
d. Designs rubber belts and canvas shoes (Davanzo 45)

g. 1930 –
§ Silhouette
o Modest Two piece hourglass
o Some two piece swimsuits covering navel
o Woman on a beach in Britain, photographer and model unknown
§ Details
o Overskirts
o Swimsuit cutouts (Rosenbush, Maillot Cutout.” ,Par 1)
§ Textiles
o Wool jersey
o Feminine cotton prints (Weston, Par 9)
§ Ready -to- Wear
o Ready-to-wear designs form as women buy attachable skirts for their swimsuits
§ Designers
o Clair McCardell introduces the bare stomach by cutting out a panel of the one piece swimsuit on 1935(Rosenbush, Maillot Cutout.”, Par 2)
§ News
o Hollywood stars Dorothy Lamour and Esther Williams popularize swimwear through starring in beach movies (“Woman on the beach in Sunhat and swimsuit, about 1935,” Par 1)

h. 1940 –
§ Silhouette
o Hourglass with Corset structure (Mcknenzie, 6-12)
o Elasticized Bandeau bodice (Rosenbush, 1940-1945: Hollywood Widens the Bare Midriff”, Par 11)
o 1940’s typical swimsuit
o Tummy control, boning, bra cups
o Back zip closures (Weston, Par 11)
o Big bows tied towards the back
o Mother-daughter matching swimsuits
o His-hers matching suits
§ Textiles
o Hawaiian, Polynesian prints, Camouflage colors
o Celanese rayon, satin Lastex, Nylastic (Hsueh, Par 5)
§ Ready-to-Wear
o Sheath culotte designed for an alluring view of the hips (Par 12)
o Sarong culotte is introduced as a swimwear ready-to-wear separate
a. Brings the erogenous zone down from the Brest line to below the waistline (Rosenbush, 1940-1945: Hollywood Widens the Bare Midriff”, Par 13)
o Cover ups featured in Vogue magazine to raise awarness of the effect of too much sunbathing
a. Beach dresses, shorts, ballerina skirts, bolero jackets (Hsueh, Par 5)
§ Designers
o Louis Reard, Frenchman, designs the first bikini on June 30, 1946
o Jacques Heim d├ębuts the first bikini in July 1946 (Mcknenzie, 6-12)
a. Designs overcoats, pareos, and robes for casual wear
o Clair Mcdarell develops “American Look”
a. Made from natural material’s
b. Spaghetti ties cut from bias cords used to wrap around the neck, shoulder, and waist (Hsueh, Par 5)
§ News
o Atomic Bomb explodes on Bikini Atoll island and sets the toll for next generation swimwear (Mcknenzie, 74-76)
o United States swimwear market thrives from Disney and beach focused movies (Davanzo 74)
o Swimming is viewed as leisure living
o Women in swimsuits also known as “Pin up’s” (Mcknenzie, 6-12)

i. 1950 –
§ Silhouette
o Emphasis’s on neckline
o One piece with inner structure
o Two piece with bottoms worn over navel
o 1954 skirted swimsuit

§ Details
o Loops, ribbons, knots,
o Built in bra’s, panty girdles
o Kleiner’ts water tight swim caps kept hair dry
o Beach bags, sunglasses, beach towels sold in Bloomingdales
§ Textiles
o Vertical stripes, plaids, batiks, zebra bright colors
o Hawaiian, atomic swirls, Submarine landscapes, pony prints (Hsueh, Par 6)
o Matletex, elasticized cotton gabardine, Nylon
§ Designers
o Fred Cole, air to Coast knitting Mills, designs with Matletex textiles to give a more form fitting silhouette
a. Esther William, Hollywood swimming queen, advertises Fred Cole swim line
o Jantzen swimwear company advertises in Seventeen magazine
a. Liberates women from built in bra’s and girdles
b. Uses elasticized cotton gabardine, latex faille, nylon lace, Pellon interlining bra (Epstein, Par 1-6)
§ News
o Bloomingdales Advertises swimsuits in full color with the use of Hollywood celebrity Frankie Lane
o Wanamakers Department Store advertises swimsuit illustrations in New York times in 1954 (Epstein, Par 2-3)

j. 1960 –
§ Silhouette
o Backless two piece bikini’s
o Low cut one piece swimsuits
o January 15, 1968 Sport illustrated Cover, Volume 28 Issue #2, Photographed by John Zimmerman. Molded by Turia Mau
§ Details
o Clear plastic rings
o Spaghetti straps
§ Textiles
o Nylon, lycra,
o Mesh, crochet, vertical slit holes (Rosenbush, Maillot Cutout.”, Par 3)
§ Ready –to- Wear
o Invention of bikini, skinny straps, and crochet swimsuits increase the need for ready-to-wear cover ups
§ Designers
o Emillio Pucci designs silk printed bikinis (Davanzo, 74)
o Bridgitte Bardot designs a more revealing bikini and advertises in “beach” themed movies (Mcknenzie, 6-12)
o Rudi Gernreich designs shocking swimsuit
a. Original designed in black knit with skinny suspenders extending from navel covering panties across bare chest (Hsueh, Par 6)
b. Designed for Harmon Knitwear in 1967, Featured in Sports Illustrated 2000, photo by Russel james

k. 1970 –
§ Silhouette
o Two piece bikinis
o Erogenous zone focuses on the breast
o One piece front zipped swimsuits
o January 27, 1975 Sport Illustrated Cover, Volume 42 Issue #4, Photographed by Walter Iooss, Jr. Molded by Cheryl Tiegs
§ Details
o Fastener variations, knotting spaghetti ties, elastic cording
o String briefs
o Contrasting detailing
§ Textiles
o Crochet, fish net, chain mail, opaque
o Jungle inspired
o Spandex
§ Designers
o Rudi Gernreich designs opaque blouses for swimwear cover-ups
o Andre Correges and Paco Rabanne design chain mail swimwear costuming
§ News
o Enith Brigitha of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles becomes the first black swimmer
a. First black female swimmer to win the Olympics
b. Popularizes swimwear cross-culturally (Berger, Par 2)

l. 1980 –
§ Silhouette
o High leg line, low armholes, v-kini’s, culotte
o Low waistline, topless, side halters
o Asymmetrical, layered, exercise inspired
o Cut out one piece swimsuits
o February 10, 1986 Sports Illustrated Cover, Volume 64 Issue #6, Photographed by Brian Lanker, Jr. Molded by Elle Macpherson
§ Details
o False belted waists
o Skinny straps, tying on sides, knotting, wrapping, T-backs
o Contrasting twist’s
o Geometric seaming
o Buttons, rings, zippers
§ Textiles
o Brights, two tone
o Neoprene, used for wetsuits, is introduced into swimsuits (Rosenbush, “Materials,” Par 10)
o Thin layering of material, non lined (Rosebush, “1980-1985: Rebound,” Par 1-14)
o Cotton Batik’s (Weston, Par 24)
§ Ready -to-Wear
o Jeans and T-shirts become the new fast and easy cover up for swimsuits
o Knits become the textile choice for exercise clothing
§ Designers
o Brazilian Tanga, “G-string”, introduced into the United States (Mckenzie, 74-76)

m. 1990 –
§ Silhouette
o Reintroduction of horizontal waistline with “boy short”
a. Tight and loose fitting
o Rio cut, tongo, v-fronts bottoms
o One piece with high leg lines and zipped fronts
o Mini two piece bikini’s paired with Tanga’s (Rosebush, 1990-1995: Tanga Takehold,” Par 1-15)
o February 21, 1997 Sports Illustrated Cover Volume 86, Issue 7, Photographed by Russel James, Molded by Tyra Banks
§ Details
o Stringing, tying, lacing, suspenders
o Skin baring Tang’s
o Criss-cross halters
o Popularity in Breast augmentation increases top sizes (Rosebush, 1990-1995: Tanga Takehold,” Par 1-15)
§ Textiles
o Stripes, prints, solids, bright, contrasting accents
o Sun select fabric, which allows safe UV rays to penetrate through swimsuit (Mcknenzie, 6-12)
§ News
o Legality issues leanger on indescent exposure on beaches (Rosebush, 1990-1995: Tanga Takehold,” Par 12)
o Baywatch premiers at tail in of the 1980’s and popularizes beach activities

n. Present day –
§ Silhouette
o Bandeau, string and micro-bikini’s, one piece, halters, bra tops, ring tops, and triangles top (Parkinson, Par 2-6)
o 2006 Sports Illustrated Cover, Photographed by Rapheal Mazzucco, Modeled by, Veronica Varekova, Elle Macpherson, Rebecca Romijn, Rachel Hunter, Daniela Pestova, Elsa Benitez, Carolyn Murphy, Yamila Diaz-Rahi
§ Details
o Ribbon straps, tails, lopsided bows, braiding
o Scuba, athletic, and evening influences
o Contrasting bias trims
o Asymmetrical draping, decorative necklines
o Contrasting separates, mix match (“Swim Autumn/Winter 2006/07”)
§ Textiles
o Crochet multi color effects
o Leopard print, colorful Waldo stripes, green, black, greys, neutrals
o Woven Cashmere (Parkinson, Par 2-6)
o Chlorine resistant fabric
o Ultra sleek water resistant athletic swimsuits (“Innovations”, Speedo.com)
§ Ready-to-Wear
o Resort wear is formed and popularized by jet setters
a. J. Crew, Banana Republic, Tommy Bahama, Chanel start designing resort wear
o Ready-to-Wear popularizes through mass producing
o New innovation textiles are introduced for environmental safe precautions
a. Organic, bamboo, corn, soy
§ Designers
o Versace, Katherine Harmett, Raplh Lauren,Vivenne Westwood, Karl Langerfield, Channel
a. Develops fashionable swimwear and resort wear
o Swimwear is mass marketed at department level prices
a. Target, Macy’s, Neimen Marcus, Bloomingdales

III. Textiles

a. Before the 20th century, swimwear was first designed in cotton, silk, wool
b. 1920 swimsuits began to be manufactured in wool jersey
c. Jantzen company of USA designs first elasticized ribbed one piece swimsuit in 1920 (Mscknenzie, 6-12)
d. American Rubber Company introduces Lastex 1920,
§ extruded rubber surrounding fiber
§ not colorfast
§ does not retain shape
e. 1930 rayon was introduced into the swimsuit
f. Otto Bayer and fellow co-workers create Polyurethane, also known as, spandex in 1937 (Bellis, Par 1-2)
g. E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company introduces 6.6 polymer, form of nylon, for swimwear in 1939 (MeNulty, Par 5-7)
h. Lycra invented by Dupont and introduced into swimwear in 1958
§ Thin, strong, lightweight
§ Form fitting (Rosenbusch,”Materials.” Par 9)
i. Speedo introduces nylon into their competitive swimwear fabric in 1955 (Par 2)
j. Neoprene is developed to create Wetsuits and swimsuits in 1980’s
§ Made from a form of rubber
k. Triumph invents sun select fabric in 1990, which allows safe UV rays to penetrate through swimsuit (Mcknenzie, 6-12)
l. Speedo designs new chlorine resistant fabric known as Endurance+ in 2000
§ Retains color up to 20% longer
m. Speedo creates competitive athletic swimwear suits known as Fatskin FSII in 2000
§ Reduces water drag up to 4% (“Innovations”, Speedo.com)

IV. Summary

Swimwear has undergone several transformations throughout the past centuries; Beginning with fully clothed tunics to the all bearing mini bikinis. Along with these transformations there has been the development of engineered synthetic textiles, political controversies and new designer product lines. A look into the future holds yet another transformation for swimwear. The turn of the century will yield organic environmental friendly textiles, affordable designer labels, and a fusion between causal daywear with swimwear.

I. Bibliography
*“2006/2007 Autmn/Winter 2006/2007.” 19 July 2007. WGSN-EDU. 2005.
*Berger, Christian. “A Short History of Black Swimming: The 70's: Enith Brigitha,” 18 July 2007. Black Athlete. 11 July 2006. http://www.blackathlete.net/artman/publish/article_0330.shtml
*Davanzo Poli, Dorelta. Beachwear & Bathing-Costume. Sanfi Editori, 1995. ISBN# 88-86169-83-3
*Epstein, Peggy. “Great Shapes at the Beach: Swimsuits of the 1950.” 18 July 2007. Loti 50’s. 2005.
*“Fine Art 2102-1198.” 18th July 2007. Super Stock. 2007. http://www.superstock.com/preview.asp?EnableSMLTLink=1&pbtop=&image=2102-1198&imagex=4&searchnum=0001&isCDBackUrl=false&IsBrandSearch=False&BrandName=&fotog=&txtkeys1=Ancient/mosaic
*Hsueh, Roselyn. “Womens Swimwear: 20th Century and Present. 18 July 2007. OCF Berkeley. 1997. http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~roseying/ids110/1FRAME.HTM
*Mcknenzie, Joy. The Best in Swimwear Design. B.T Batsford Ltd, 1998. ISBN# 0713480394
*MeNulty, Mary. “How Swimsuits are Made: Volume 7.” 17 July, 2007. Made How. 2007. http://www.madehow.com/Volume-7/Swimsuit.html
*Parkinson, Ann. “2007 Swimwear.” 18th July, 2007. Swimsuits, Love to Know. 2007.
*Rosenbush, Judson. “1940-1945: Hollywood Widens the Bare Midriff.” 14 July, 2007. Bikini Science. 2007. http://www.bikiniscience.com/chronology/ 1940-1945_SS/1940-1945.html
*Rosenbush, Judson. “1980-1985: The Rebound.” 18 July 2007. Bikini Science. 2007. http://www.bikiniscience.com/chronology/1980-1985_SS/1980-1985.html
*Rosenbush, Judson. “1990-1995: The Tanga Takehold.” 21 July 2007. Bikini Science. 2007. http://www.bikiniscience.com/chronology/1990-1995_SS/1990-1995.html
*Rosebush, Judson. “Maillot Cutout.” 14 July, 2007. Bikini Science. 2007.
*Rosenbush, Judson. “Materials.” 17 July, 2007. Bikini Science. 2007. http://www.bikiniscience.com/costumes/bikiniology_SS/materials_S/materials.html
*“SI Swimsuit Collection.” 18th July 2007. Sports Illustrated CNN. 2007. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/swimsuit/collection/covers/
*“Speedo: Innovation.” 17 July 2007. Speedo. 2007. http://www.speedo.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=562&Itemid=213&lc=en&cc=global
*Weston, Paulina. “Victorian and Edwardian Seaside Fashion.” 18th July 2007. Fashion Era 2007. http://www.fashion-era.com/early_swimwear.htm
*Weston, Paulina. “ Women’s Swimwear in the 20th Century.” 12 July, 2007. Fashion Era. 2007.
http://www.fashion-era.com/swimwear.htm #1930's%20Bathing%20Suits
*“Woman on the Beach in Sunhat and Swimsuit, about 1935.” 18th July 2007. Ingenious. 2003. http://www.ingenious.org.uk/See/?target=SeeMedium&ObjectID={1E7DCC16-567A-008C-E78A-76897C4CB1CF}&Mode=HotBox&ArticleID={052554D5-A933-4E9D-9636-D774F557F0F4}&


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